What is Type 1 Diabetes?

  • Paul Lambert
    Affiliations
    Paul Lambert is Clinical Research Fellow in the Department of Diabetes and Metabolism at Southmead Hospital, Bristol, UK. He qualified from the University of Oxford, and is training as a specialist registrar in diabetes and endocrinology in Bristol. His research interest is the genetics of type 1 diabetes
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  • Polly J Bingley
    Affiliations
    Polly J Bingley is Reader in Diabetic Medicine at the University of Bristol, UK. She qualified from University College London, and trained in diabetes at St Bartholomew's Hospital, London. Her research interests are the aetiology and pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, particularly prediction and prevention of the disease
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      Abstract

      Type 1 diabetes is characterized by immune-mediated destruction of pancreatic β-cells resulting in insulin deficiency. This results in a common biochemical end-point of hyperglycaemia and risk of ketoacidosis, but the clinical presentation varies widely depending on the rate and degree of β-cell failure. As a consequence, there has been increasing recognition of type 1 diabetes presenting in adulthood, and a blurring of the margins between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. These points are reflected in the most recent report on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes from the American Diabetes Association (ADA).

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      FURTHER READING

        • Atkinson MA
        • Eisenbarth GS
        Type 1 Diabetes: New Perspectives on Disease Pathogenesis and Treatment.
        Lancet. 2001; 358: 221-229
      1. Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus.
        Diabetes Care. 1998; 21 (Explains the new classification and diagnostic criteria for diabetes.): S5-S19
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        Crucial Points at Diagnosis. Type 2 Diabetes or Slow Type 1 Diabetes.
        Diabetes Care. 1999; 22 (Describes potential confusion and means of distinguishing between these two conditions.): B59-B64